Crypto Links

If you have explored the cryptography section and still want to find out more about cryptography, then the following sites might be of interest.

Sites also of interest to children and teenagers are marked (Y).

Enigma and WW II

Bletchley Park

The official Bletchley Park website, which includes opening times and directions in case you want to visit. (Y)

Enigma and General History

The Imperial War Museum have created an excellent on-line cryptography exhibition, ideal for younger people. If you want skip the early history, then the excellent material about Enigma starts here. (Y)

ULTRA’s Influence in WWII

The text of a speech presented by Sir Harry Hinsley, wartime codebreaker, at Cambridge University’s Computer Security Group.

Codes and Ciphers in WWII

Website with information about British and Allied codebreaking in WWII. It includes explanations of how the Enigma works and how the Lorenz cipher was broken by the Colossus.

Enigma and Other Machines

A site hosted by Enigma expert David Hamer, with features and links to sites about Enigma and other cipher machines, including post-war devices.

Alan Turing Archive

Largest web collection of digital facsimiles of original documents by Turing and other pioneers of computing. Plus articles about Turing and his work, including Artificial Intelligence. Also, recently declassified previously top-secret documents about codebreaking.

Alan Turing Memorial

The memorial stands in Sackville Park, Manchester. This website is authored by the sculptor, Glyn Hughes.

Unofficial Bletchley Park Site

Lots of information about Bletchley Park, the Enigma, the birth of computing and cryptography in general. Also includes several useful links.

Navajo Code Talkers

An excellent site about some of the unsung heroes of WWII.

Code Talkers Dictionary

Find out more about the Navajo language and codes employed by the the U.S. military.


A site in honour of the Navajo and other Native American Code Talkers. Includes FAQs about the Code Talkers and about Native Americans.

Downloadable Enigma Emulator

An excellent Enigma emulator which allows you to tinker with all the settings, just like the real thing.

Modern Encryption

Modern Cryptography Overview

This is an ideal introductory site to online privacy and the packages available to encrypt your own e-mails.

History of Non-Secret Encryption

A paper by James Ellis about the history of non-secret encryption, GCHQ’s version of public key cryptography. A second online paper shows Ellis’s original paper.

Elliptic Curve Cryptography

An introduction to elliptic curves and how they are used to create a public key algorithm.

Politics and Privacy

Echelon and Menwith Hill

This New Statesman article offers an insight into the expansion of the US-UK-Allied forces electronic surveillance service, also known as Project P145, based at Menwith Hill, Yorkshire. This system allows the US and UK governments to listen in on your domestic telephone calls….

Crypto Law Survey

An interesting site outlining one of the biggest dilemmas facing cryptography today – the right to internet privacy versus the dangerous and illegal use of the internet. This site outlines the existing and proposed laws relating to this very modern moral issue.

Crypto, Clipper and the Constitution

A very detailed and informative site discussing modern cryptology – from its applications in banks, businesses and e-mails, to the current legal issues surrounding the subject.

Electronic Frontier Foundation

A San-Francisco based organisation committed to defending Internet privacy rights. Their aims can be summarised in their own words: “Only by fighting for our rights to speak freely whatever the medium – whether books, telephones, or computers – can we protect and enhance the human condition.”

Encryption Policy Survey

The Global Internet Liberty Campaign carried out a major survey on the current cryptographical policies of over 75 countries. This site outlines the findings of the survey, and the possible implications in societies where human rights infringements are occurring on a daily basis.


A site developed by businesses and universities designed to help understand and analyse cryptographic mechanisms.

General Cryptography Sites

The Code Book on CD-ROM

Download the complete version or a “lite” version of the CD-ROM which accompanies The Code Book.

American Cryptogram Association

An association for codebreakers from all over the world – despite the name – which concentrates on classical ciphers.

National Cryptologic Museum

A fantastic museum just outside Washington DC, with exhibits ranging from sixteenth century crypto manuals to modern cipher machines. (Y)

Centre for Quantum Computation

Dedicated to research into quantum cryptography and quantum computers, with an excellent tutorial section and articles aimed at various levels of expertise.

Cryptologia Journal

A quarterly journal dedicated to the history of cryptography. Content includes computer security, military science, espionage, cipher devices and ancient languages.

Decoder Rings

Click on the last link on this page to find out more about the Ovaltine decoder ring – a handy way to decode simple substitution ciphers. (Y)